Nick & David's

Safflower in Australia

Welcome | Trials | Papers | Acrobat Reader | Links | Acknowledgements

Email Nick Wachsmann or David Jochinke



Hello and welcome to Nick and David's Safflower in Australia web site.  Most of this information on this site has been generated through an Australian Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) funded project titled "Evaluating the potential roles of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Southern Region cropping systems" (UM132).  This project was started in 2000 at the Longerenong College campus of the .Institute of Land and Food Resources, The University of Melbourne.

The broad aims of the project are to;

  1. Define potential roles for safflower in southern region cropping systems

  2. Improve yields by manipulating agronomic practices to match crop water requirements with plant available water

  3. Evaluate the performance of newly developed and overseas safflower cultivars

  4. Promote the roles of safflower to current and potential growers

  5. Several more specific aims based on safflower growth, phenology and water use for PhD

Numerous publications and presentations have been made regarding results determined by this project and a few can be found here on this web site.  We hope that this site provides some technical information into the growth of safflower in southern Australia as well as some practical information for growers.

Regards Nick Wachsmann & David Jochinke


Trial sites that were used over the 1999 to 2001 research season can be divided into two main types; core that received detailed observations and measurements and others that only recorded primary information.

Core Sites
1999/00: Longerenong Dryland (LD00), Frances (F00)
2000/01: Longerenong Dryland (LD01), Longerenong prewatered (LPW01) (200 mm prior to             sowing)

Other Sites
1999/00: Cressy, Tasmania (C00), Glasshouse (GH00)
2000/01: Cressy, Tasmania (C01), Frances (F01), Glenroy, South Australia (G01)

A list of trials conducted at these sites where;

Winter crop comparison:      Safflower, canola, mustard, wheat, LinolaÔ, wheat, fallow
                                            LD00, F00, LD01, LPW01

Summer crop comparison:    Safflower, LinolaÔ, sunflower, buckwheat, sorghum, maize, fallow
LD01, LPW01, G01

Rotation trials: Wheat sown over 2000 winter crop trials, LWD01 FW01

Cultivar evaluation: GH00, LD00, F00, C00, LD01, LPW01, C01, F01, G01 (~ 12 cultivars/lines)

Hybrid evaluation with conventional cultivars included: LD01, LPW01

Staggered sowing: 4 cultivars with different maturities sown to flower at the same time, LD01

Time of sowing: LD00, LPW01

Sowing rate: LD01, LPW01

Factorials: Sowing rate ´ Cultivar ´ Sowing time (LD01, LPW01)

AllyÒ: LD01

Rooting depth: LD01 (failed)

Measurements on the core sites include phenology, biomass accumulation, leaf area index, light interception, grain yield and components, oil quality and soil water. Measurements at other sites vary.

Additional trials have been run in 2003/04.  One area gaining interest is organic safflower and its agronomic requirements.  Alternative organic crops are also being investigated.

Above: Bill Slatery, Peter Ware, Andrew Ship and Nick Wachsmann reviewing the summer crop trials at "Torry" on the Murrumbidgee flood plains near Maude via Hay in New South Wales (Australia).


Here you will find all of the papers published from the Safflower project that has been running over the past 3 years . To view the .pdf file just click on the .pdf file icon. To download right click on the file icon and select "download target".

JCCI_Safflower_Survey_2000.pdf (98kb)
The Role of Safflower (Carthamis tinctorius L.) in Southern Australia

Canopy_temperature.pdf (132 kb)
Crop canopy temperature as an explanation for early flowering of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in response to water stress

Cultivar.pdf (311 kb)
The search for alternative safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars adapted to southeastern Australia with improved marketability

JCCI_Safflower_TOS2001.pdf (142 kb)
The effect of sowing time on the growth, yield and water use of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.): some preliminary results.

Potential_Safflower_Role_SFS.pdf (204 kb)
The potential role of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Australia’s southern farming systems

Safflower_hybrid.pdf (217 kb)
The performance of imported safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) hybrids in south-eastern Australia

Summer_crop_comparison.pdf (169 kb)
An evaluation of safflower, Linola
Ô, sunflower, maize, buckwheat and sorghum as spring sown cropping options for south-eastern Australia

Winter_crop_comparison.pdf (247 kb)
The comparative growth, yield and water use of safflower, LinolaÔ, mustard, canola and wheat in southern Australia

Acrobat Reader

Forms and documents can be transferred (downloaded) to your computer using the Adobe Acrobat Reader Software.  The free Adobe® Acrobat® Reader allows you to view, navigate, and print Acrobat® (.pdf) files across all major computing platforms. Acrobat Reader is downloadable from Adobe software.

Following this link will take you to Adobe's website where you can choose the version of Acrobat Reader which suits your computer.


Here are a few good web links that contain information about safflower.

Sixth International Safflower Conference Istanbul Turkey

Fifth International Safflower Conference, Williston, North Dakota & Sidney, Montana USA July 23-27 2001

Growing safflower in Nebraska

Safflower production in North Dakota  

Safflower fertilisation in North Dakota

Safflower production in South Dakota  

Safflower production tips in Washington

Safflower production in Colorado  

Safflower forage production in Montana

Safflower production in Manitoba  

Safflower production in Minnesota  

Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Safflower

Safflower production on the Canadian prairies

Safflower production in California  

Safflower Improvement Programme at the Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (NARI)

SeedTec S-780 PBR paper

Hybrid Safflower production utilizing genetic dwarf male sterility

Safflower Genetic Resources Homepage

Oilseeds International

California Oils

Safflower, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute 
(800 kb pdf download, good information on safflower taxonomy, history, use, production, breeding etc)

A.V. Jochinke & Co. (Agriculture on the Wimmera Plains)



This page runs on the efforts of numerous people.  We would like to thank;

Core Research Team Members

Art Weisker
Sue Knights and Rob Norton (JCCI, University of Melbourne), Trent Potter (SARDI), Brian Field (DPIWE), John Kirkegaard (CSIRO)

Research Technical Officers

Peter Howie, Tahirih Broomhall, Rob Decesare, David & Karla Page, Nick McClure & David Bert

Everyone Who Has Given Help & Support

Verne Hallam, Bruce Holding, Steve Barns, Roger Perris, Ewin Lett & Steve Marcroft @ VIDA

Jenny and Mark (Library) & Brett Allander @ Longerenong

Ted Wolfe, Matt Macallum, Mary Dearing, Charles Koch and family,  Michelle Miller, Rod Greenland, David Boerth, Roger Perris, Greg Antonoff & Survey Participants

Affiliated Organisations

GRDC (Funding provider)
Devexco International (Australian based marketing company)
SeedTec (US safflower breeding company)
Safftec (US breeder of hybrids)


Thanks Heaps

Nick Wachsmann & David Jochinke

The information contained in this document has been compiled from a range of trial results and other sources which have been appropriately acknowledged.  Due care has been taken in collating this document and the information is provided in good faith, however the authors take no responsibility and disclaim all liability for any error, omission, loss or other consequence which may arise from any person relying on and/or taking actions based on any information contained in this document

This web site was last updated 23rd February 2004